The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below: A. General Agriculture B. Agronomy C. Animal Production D. Agricultural Economics and Extension E. Agricultural Technology SECTION A: General Agriculture 1. Meaning and Scope of Agriculture Topics: a. Definition of Agriculture b. Branches of Agriculture c. Types of Agriculture i.e subsistence and commercial Objectives: Candidates should be able to: use the definition of Agriculture in modern terms as it relates to production, processing and marketing. differentiate between the various branches of Agriculture. Differentiate between the various types of Agriculture 2. Importance of Agriculture Topics: i. Provision of raw materials for agro-allied industries ii. Provision of employment iii. Development of rural areas, etc Objectives: Candidates should be able to: relate agro-allied industries to their respective raw materials relate the various contributions of Agriculture to economic development in West Africa. 3. Agricultural Ecology Topics: a. Ecological zones of West Africa b. Agricultural products of each ecological zone c. Environmental factors and their effects on crop and livestock production Objectives: Candidates should be able to: differentiate between the features of the ecological zones in West Africa. classify agricultural products according to each ecological zone. differentiate abiotic from biotic factors affecting agricultural production. 4. Genetics Topics: a. First and second laws of Mendel b. Cell division c. Terminologies e.g locus, alleles, genotype, dominance Objectives: Candidates should be able to: apply the first and second laws of Mendel to genetics. differentiate between the types of cell division. i. determine the outcome of genetic crossing involving homozygous and heterozygous traits. ii. compute simple probability ratios 5. Farm Inputs Topics: e.g. planting materials, agrochemicals, e.t.c. Objectives: Candidates should be able to: (i) classify different types of farm inputs and their uses. 6. History of Agricultural Development in West Africa Topics: a. Agricultural systems e.g. shifting cultivation, bush fallowing e.t.c b. Problems of Agricultural development e.g land tenure systems, inadequate infrastructures, finance for agriculture, pollution etc. c. Establishment of national research institutes e.g. NCRI, IAR, IAR&T, CRIN, NIFOR, FRIN, RRI, NRCRI, NIHORT, LCRI, e.t.c. and international research institutes e.g. IITA, ILRI, ICRISAT, WARDA e.t.c., leading to increased application of science to the development of agriculture. d. Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) e.g. RTEP, FADAMA etc. e. National agricultural programmes such as OFN, NAFPP, NALDA, Green Revolution, NCRPs, NARP, Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) e.t.c Objectives: Candidates should be able to: compare various agricultural systems. identify the problems and proffer solutions i. trace the history of research institutes from past to present. ii. assess their role in the development of agriculture. iii.give reasons for the establishment of ADPs. iv. evaluate the contributions of national agricultural programmes. 7. Roles of Government and NGOs in Agricultural Development Topics: a. Development of fiscal policies favourable to agricultural production e.g. import duties, ban on importation, e.t.c. b. Agricultural laws and reforms e.g Land Use Act. c. Government programmes aimed at agricultural development e.g. subsidies, credit facilities, e.t.c. d. Provision of infrastructures e.g. transport systems, communication systems, e.t.c. e. Contribution of NGOs to agricultural development Objectives: Candidates should be able to: evaluate the effects of government policies on agricultural development. identify agricultural laws and their effect on agricultural production i. identify the various agricultural incentives provided by the government. ii. assess their effects on agricultural development. compare the various infrastructural facilities provided by government and their uses. examine the roles of NGOs in the development of agriculture. SECTION B: Agronomy 1. Rocks and Soil formation Topics: a. Factors affecting rock weathering and soil formation b. Physical properties of soil i. Soil profile ii. Soil texture and structure c. Chemical properties of soil i. Soil acidity and alkalinity ii. Chemical component of soil e.g silicate Objectives: Candidates should be able to: identify major types and properties of rocks and soils; factors and processes of soil formation. differentiate between the horizons in a soil profile. i. differentiate between the components of soil. ii. compute the proportion of soil constituents. iii. analyse soil into its constituents parts. iv. determine the water-holding capacity of soil v. determine the soil pH. 2. Soil Water and Soil Conservation Topics: a. Soil water: its importance, sources, movement, management and conservation. b. Soil conservation: meaning and importance, causes, effects, prevention and control of leaching, erosion, continuous cropping, burning and oxidation of organic matter. c. Irrigation and drainage methods Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. compare capillary, gravitational and hygroscopic water. ii. determine water-holding capacity, wilting points and plant available/unavailable water. i. identify the causes of erosion and leaching. ii. determine control methods. i. classify irrigation and drainage systems. ii. examine the importance and challenges of irrigation and drainage. 3. Soil Fertility Topics: a. Macro and micro-nutrients and their roles in plant nutrition: carbon, water and nitrogen cycles b. The living population of the soil (flora and fauna), and their roles in soil fertility c. Maintenance of soil fertility. Methods of maintaining soil fertility e.g. use of cover crops, application of organic manures, e.t.c. d. Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g. chlorosis, sickle leaves, stunting, apical necrosis e.t.c. Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. classify plant nutrients. ii. identify factors affecting their availability. examine the roles of soil flora and fauna in maintaining soil fertility. i. compare the different methods of maintaining soil fertility. ii. differentiate between organic and inorganic fertilizer, and their methods of application. iii. determine common fertilizer ratios. i. identify the deficiency symptoms and their causes. ii. suggest remedies 4. Land Preparation and Soil Tillage Topics: a. Principles and practices of land preparation and soil tillage b. Factors affecting choice of tillage methods: Zero tillage, minimum tillage, e.t.c. Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. compare the different methods of land preparation and soil tillage in relation to different groups of crops. ii. give reasons for the advantages and the disadvantages of land preparation and soil tillage. give reasons for the choice of tillage methods. 5. Plant Forms and functions Topics: a. Parts of monocot and dicot crop plants and their functions b. The anatomy and morphology of the storage organs of common crop plants. Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. identify crop plant parts and their functions. ii. distinguish between monocot and dicot crop plants iii. differentiate the various storage organs of crop plants 6. Growth, Development and Reproduction Topics: a. Gametogenesis b. Pollination c. Fertilization d. Embryo formation and development Objectives: Candidates should be able to: examine the process of gamete formation. give reasons for different types of pollination. analyse the process of fertilization. trace the process of embryo formation and development to the formation of seeds and fruits. 7. Plant Propagation Methods Topics: a. Sexual: the use of seeds, seed viability, viability test, seed rate and seed germination b. Asexual (vegetative propagation) e.g. cutting, budding, grafting, layering, e.t.c. c. Nursery and nursery management Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. classify crops propagated by sexual methods. ii. determine seed viability and seed rate. iii. differentiate between types of seed germination. iv. examine the conditions for seed germination. classify crops into different vegetative propagation methods. i. determine appropriate nursery sites, types; their advantages and disadvantages. ii. apply the techniques of transplanting seedlings 8. Cropping Systems, Planting Patterns and Plant Densities Topics: a. Cropping systems: Monocropping, mixed-, multiple-, inter-, relay-, strip- and rotational cropping b. Planting patterns: Broadcasting, row spacing and drilling c. Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. compare cropping systems. ii. apply different cropping systems to solve problems in agriculture. differentiate between the various planting patterns. i. examine the various types of plant densities and their effects on crop yield. ii. compute plant density per hectare. 9. Crop Husbandry Topics: Common and scientific names, gross morphology, anatomy of storage organs, methods of propagation, husbandry practices, harvesting, processing and storage, common diseases and pests, economic importance of the following groups of crops. Group 1: Cereals e.g maize, guinea corn, rice Group 2: Legumes e.g cowpea, groundnut, soyabean Group 3: Tubers e.g yam, cassava, sweet potatoes Group 4: Vegetables and Spices e.g tomatoes, egg plant, pepper, onion, okro, cabbage, amaranthus sp. Group 5: Fruits e.g citrus, pineapple, pawpaw Group 6: Beverages e.g cocoa, kola, coffee Group 7: Oils e.g oil palm, coconut, shearbutter Group 8: Latex e.g para rubber, gum arabic Group 9: Fibres e.g jute, cotton, sisal hemp Group 10: Sugars e.g sugarcane, beet Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. apply the different methods of crop propagation, husbandry, harvesting, processing and storage for each crop. ii. identify common diseases and pests and their effects on crop yield. iii. determine the economic importance of each of the crops. iv. relate their importance to national economic development. 10. Pasture and Forage Crops Topics: a. Study of gross morphology, methods of propagation and husbandry of common pasture grasses and legumes. Establishment, maintenance, conservation and uses of pastures and forage crops. b. Study of natural grasslands and their distribution in West Africa c. Range management Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. classify common grasses and legumes used as pastures and forage ii. differentiate between pasture and forage crops by their common and scientific names. iii. distinguish between the various methods of conserving pastures e.g. hay- and silage-making. iv. relate different vegetational zones to their dominant pasture species. v. determine range types and utilization of range resources in Nigeria 11. Floriculture Topics: Identification, establishment, maintenance and uses of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. distinguish between common ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers. ii. determine their uses and maintenance 12. Weeds Topics: a. Gross morphology, methods of reproduction, dispersal and effect of weeds b. Weed control methods - weeding, mulching, cover cropping, tillage, herbicides and trap cropping Objectives: Candidates should be able to: i. identify weeds with their common and scientific names. ii. classify weeds according to their mode of dispersal. apply various weed control methods.